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High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile
HARM Destruction of enemy air defense
The AGM-88 HARM (high-speed anti-radiation missile)
is an air-to-surface anti-radiation tactical missile designed to
seek and destroy enemy radar-equipped air defense systems.
The AGM-88 can detect, attack and destroy a target with minimum
aircrew input. The proportional guidance system that homes in on
enemy radar emissions has a fixed antenna and seeker head in the
missile nose. A smokeless, solid-propellant, dual-thrust rocket
motor propels the missile.
The supersonic missile uses a dual-thrust rocket motor, produced by
Thiokol. Its launch weight is 800 pounds (360 kg). The missile has a
range of over 30 miles (46 km). It is equipped with a radar seeker,
and a proportional navigation system, enabling the missile to attack
any active emitter within the predetermined area.
Once airborne, HARM can operate in three modes: preemptive,
missile-as-sensor and self-protect. In long-range preemptive
scenarios, HARM is fired before locking on to the threat radar.
Targeting is provided through preflight planning or cued via on- or
off-board sensors. Most aircraft are equipped to utilize HARM as a
sensor, providing cockpit displays that enhance aircrew target
selection and threat prosecution. Radar warning receivers used with
the self-protect mode and other more sophisticated electronic
warfare support measures (ESM) systems provide additional
capabilities for locating enemy radar emitters. Once the aircrew
selects the target, the missile is launched, homes in on the target,
makes in-flight corrections and eliminates the threat.
In production since 1983, the missile was first used with U.S. Air
Force F-4G Wild Weasel, supported by the APR-47 radar attack and
warning system on the aircraft. The missile is operationally
deployed throughout the Air Force and in full production as a joint
U.S. Air Force-U.S. Navy project. The missile is cleared for
operation with F-16, F/A-18, EA-6B and Tornado fighter aircraft.
An enhanced version of the missile
is the "HDAM" (HARM Destruction of enemy air defense Attack Module).
This version is equipped with GPS/INS system, improving the
missile's capability to pursue targets in electromagnetically
cluttered environment, while coping with restrictive rules of
engagement. HDAM uses the on-board GPS/IMU (fiber optic gyro)
navigation system to restrict the missile's seeker to pursue targets
located in a pre-programmed missile impact zone (MIZ). The seeker
will reject any target located outside the MIZ. If an emitter is
shut down during the attack, or if the signal is lost during the
flight, the HDAM will continue to search and will lock onto radars
located in the MIZ as soon as they are activated. Provided with the
new navigation system, HDAM can also be utilized as a long-range,
supersonic strike weapon against non-radiating, time critical
targets. The missile is also compatible with MIL-STD-1553 aircraft
databus, providing pilots more flexibility in re-programming the
missile in flight. HDAM is developed by Raytheon Company in the U.S.
with support from Bodenseewerk Gerätetechnik GmBH (BGT) in Germany.
The missile's performance were demonstrated in
August 2006. It
is scheduled to begin low rate production in 2007.