Following the initial deployment of the S-400 strategic anti-missile air defense system, the Russian Army plans to embark on a modernization of its tactical air defense assets, with the fielding of a modernized version of the Tor-M2 and BUK M3 missiles.

Tor M2 features significantly enhanced target acquisition capabilities and shorter close-in (minimum range) capability of 1,000 meters, improving its effectiveness protecting against precision guided weapons. Another improvement will be fielded with the Buk M1 system (SA-11 Gadfly) which will be upgraded to M3 capability.

This version is expected to become operational by 2009 featuring modernized electronics. Some 400 SA-8 (Gecko) mobile air defense units currently in service will also be modernized. By that time, mobile short range Tunguska missile-gun system, and Strela 10 (SA-13 Gopher) will also be modernized with improved all-weather and night capability.

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