Tungushka, and its upgraded version Pantsir, are hybrid air defense systems, employing air defense guns and missiles on an integrated platform. The 2S6M1 Tungushka is a 35 ton armoured air defense system, designed to defend mobile combat units in field deployments or on the move, as well as stationary point targets. Tungushka can engage low flying or hovering helicopters as well as fast strike aircraft (up to 500 m/sec). The system can operate day and night, under low visibility and adverse weather conditions. A mobile air defense unit utilizes a radar carrier, operating the TAR 9C18M1 radar, (nato code name “Hot Shot”) linked to the battery command vehicle, which directs fire commands to up to six firing units.
Each Tungushka fire unit has a crew of four, it carries an integral radar, four pairs of 9M311-1M (SA-19) missiles which can be independently elevated, and 2A38M twin barrel 30mm AA guns firing HE-AP and HE-IT projectiles. The missile uses a SACLOS (Semi-Active Command to Line of Sight) radio command, with optical line of sight override. The battery also has 3 to 6 ammunition reloading trucks, which transport one reload package of eight missiles and 1904 gun cartridges.
The system offers reaction time of 8 seconds, with effective target detection range of 18km, and tracking range of 16km. Engagement altitude is between 15m’ to 3.5km for the missiles (2,500 m’ to 10km. range) and 0 – 3,000 meters altitude (200 m’ – 4km. range) for the guns.
Among the operators of the system is the Indian Army, which has already received ten batteries. Four additional batteries are on order. (New order announced December 20, 2005)