As Ukraine relied on the same equipment as the Russian forces, they were overmatched by the Russian numerical superiority in artillery. After two months of activity and the systematic destruction of Ukraine’s ammunition manufacturing plants, Ukraine is running low on Eastern standard ammunition (152mm, 122mm, rockets). That is why obtaining long-range artillery from the West was the #1 priority for Ukraine. Among the artillery pieces recently supplied or promised to Ukraine were M198 and M777 towed howitzers from the USA and Australia, Archer self-propelled howitzers from Sweden, and Ceasar SP howitzers from France. Once Ukraine deploys western 155mm artillery on their front line, obtaining supplies of suitable ammunition from neighboring NATO countries would be easier and more available.

Ukraine received significant ammunition loads, including Excalibur GPS-guided rounds that can strike targets within less than 10 meters of a target from a distance of 40 km; however, this is less accurate than the Ukraine-made laser-guided rounds Ukraine is using now. Unlike the laser homing munitions, Excalibur does not require laser designation in the firing loop. Another advantage of the Archer and Ceasar is their autonomy and quick reaction. Unlike towed artillery, truck-mobile guns can enter a position and start firing within a few minutes and scoot to a hideout before the enemy locates and direct counter-battery fire against these guns.

Ukraine’s other new weapons are M270 MLRS and M142 HIMARS multiple-rocket launcher systems. When equipped with GMLRS 227mm rockets, these weapon systems can strike targets up to 70 km. Both can also employ the ATACMS tactical missile that can carry a warhead of 230 kg to a range of 300 km.

M777 towed artillery supplied to Ukraine as part of the military support provided the US is now committed to the eastern front of the war against Russia.

Other chapters in this report: